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J Surg Res. 2009 Jan;151(1):40-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2008.03.039. Epub 2008 Apr 23.

Heated and humidified CO2 prevents hypothermia, peritoneal injury, and intra-abdominal adhesions during prolonged laparoscopic insufflations.

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Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.



Insufflation with standard cold-dry CO(2) during laparoscopic surgery has been shown to predispose patients to hypothermia and peritoneal injury. This study aimed to compare the effect of prolonged cold-dry CO(2) insufflation with heated-humidified CO(2) insufflation (3-5 h) on hypothermia, peritoneal damage, and intra-abdominal adhesion formation in a rat model.


A total of 160 Wistar rats were randomized to undergo no insufflation or insufflation with cold-dry CO(2) (21 degrees C, <1% relative humidity) or heated-humidified CO(2) (37 degrees C, 95% relative humidity) for 3, 4, or 5 h. Core body temperature was measured via rectum before and during insufflations. Peritoneal samples were taken at 6, 24, 48, and 96 h after treatments and analyzed with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated 2 weeks later.


Core body temperature significantly decreased in the cold-dry group, whereas it was maintained and increased in the heated-humidified group. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy studies showed intense peritoneal injury in the cold-dry CO(2) group but significantly less damages in the heated-humidified group. Increased intra-abdominal adhesion formation was observed in the cold-dry CO(2) group, while no adhesions were found in the rats insufflated with heated-humidified CO(2).


Heated-humidified CO(2) insufflation results in significantly less hypothermia, less peritoneal damage, and decreased adhesion formation as compared with cold-dry CO(2) insufflation. Heated-humidified CO(2) may be more suitable for insufflation application in prolonged laparoscopic surgery.

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