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Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2008 Sep;31(3):477-93, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2008.03.005.

Child development and personality disorder.

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Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons and New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA.


The evidence is surprisingly strong that even early adolescent personality disorders or elevated personality disorder symptoms have a broad range of negative effects well into adulthood, for the most part comparable to or even larger than those of Axis I disorders. Current evidence suggests that the most severe long-term prognosis is associated with borderline and schizotypal PDs and elevated symptoms. And of course, childhood conduct disorder is in a peculiar status, disappearing in adulthood to be manifest as a very severe disorder-antisocial PD-in a minority of those with the adolescent disorder.

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