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FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2008 Nov;66(2):271-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00557.x. Epub 2008 Jul 14.

Biostimulation and bioaugmentation to enhance dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in contaminated sediments.

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Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology and Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.


Dechlorination of spiked 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TeCDD) was investigated in sediment microcosms from three polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (CDD/F)-contaminated sites: River Kymijoki, Finland; Gulf Island Pond, Maine; and Lake Roosevelt, Washington. Dechlorination was stimulated by addition of electron donor and halogenated priming compounds, and bioaugmentation by a mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195. Amendment with 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,3,4-TeCB) promoted rapid dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TeCDD to 2-monochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2MCDD) in Gulf Island Pond and River Kymijoki sediments, however, only slow dechlorination to 1,4-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was observed in Lake Roosevelt sediments. The dechlorination pathway in 1,2,3,4-TeCB-amended microcosms proceeded mainly via 1,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, with less production of 2,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in comparison with other treatments. Microbial community analyses indicated that Dehalococcoides-like bacteria were enriched with 1,2,3,4-TeCB. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Dehalococcoides-specific 16S rRNA genes and the D. ethenogenes strain 195 dehalogenase gene, tceA, showed at least an order of magnitude higher gene copy numbers in the bioaugmented than in the nonbioaugmented microcosms. An active-dechlorinating population is present in the River Kymijoki and biostimulation may enhance both native Dehalococcoides spp. and the bioaugmented D. ethenogenes strain 195.

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