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Haemophilia. 2008 Sep;14(5):952-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2008.01814.x. Epub 2008 Jul 14.

Intracranial haemorrhage in patients with congenital haemostatic defects.

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Department of Hematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.


We investigated 52 of 457 patients with congenital factor deficiencies with 57 episodes of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) between 1998 and 2007. There were 38 severe haemophiliacs, 6 with factor XIII deficiency, 5 with factor X deficiency, 2 factor V-deficient patients, and 1 with type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD). The median age was 8 years (range 1 month-22 years). Most patients were below 15 years of age (86.5%). All patients with factor X deficiency were between 1 and 5 months of age. ICH was the primary bleeding episode leading to detection of factor deficiency in 19.2% (five patients with severe haemophilia and all patients with factor X deficiency). Trauma caused bleeding in 66%. None of the patients with factor X deficiency had history of prior trauma. Surgery was performed in five patients with subdural haematomas, all of whom survived. Conservative factor replacement with 100% correction for 3 days followed by 50-60% correction for 7 days was possible in 60% patients. Seizures requiring prolonged therapy were noted in eight patients. Death was recorded in 15 patients (29%). Inadequate therapy in the form of delay or insufficient replacement was noted in 7/15 deaths. ICH was seen in 11.3% of all patients with coagulation factor deficiencies. Factor X deficiency presented with ICH at an earlier age. Inadequate replacement therapy including delayed treatment caused nearly 50% of all deaths. Most patients can be managed satisfactorily with adequate replacement therapy alone, with surgery being reserved for those with worsening neurological conditions.

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