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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(17):1149-64. doi: 10.1080/15287390802182219.

Integrated disinfection by-products mixtures research: concentration by reverse osmosis membrane techniques of disinfection by-products from water disinfected by chlorination and ozonation/postchlorination.

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  • 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, USA.


To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the finished drinking waters from each treatment train were sent through cation-exchange resin columns to remove hardness and free chlorine. Reverse osmosis membranes were then used to concentrate approximately 2400 L of each finished water down to approximately 18 L. The resulting volumetric concentration factors for the chlorinated and ozonated/postchlorinated waters were 136- and 124-fold, respectively. The concentrates were spiked with select disinfection by-products (DBPs) that were lost during the concentration effort. The results, along with the rationale for choosing the method of concentration, are presented. After reintroduction of a select list of lost DBPs, the concentration methodology used herein was able to produce concentrates that retained large percentages of the DBPs that were in the initial finished drinking waters. Further, the distributions of the DBPs in the concentrates matched those found in the finished drinking waters.

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