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Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;131:145-50.

Bait acceptability for delivery of oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging dogs on the Navajo and Hopi Nations.

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  • 1Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Phoenix, Arizona 85021, USA.


In many areas of the world, only 30 to 50% of dogs are vaccinated against rabies. On some US Indian Reservations, vaccination rates may be as low as 5 to 20%. In 2003 and 2004, we evaluated the effectiveness of commercially available baits to deliver oral rabies vaccine to feral and free-ranging dogs on the Navajo and Hopi Nations. Dogs were offered one of the following baits containing a plastic packet filled with placebo vaccine: vegetable shortening-based Ontario slim baits (Artemis Technologies, Inc.), fish-meal-crumble coated sachets (Merial, Ltd.), dog food polymer baits (Bait-Tek, Inc.), or fish meal polymer baits (Bait-Tek, Inc.). One bait was offered to each animal and its behaviour toward the bait was recorded. Behaviours included: bait ignored, bait swallowed whole, bait chewed and discarded (sachet intact), bait chewed and discarded (sachet punctured), or bait chewed and consumed (sachet punctured). Bait acceptance ranged from 30.7% to 77.8% with the fish-meal-crumble coated sachets having the highest acceptance rate of the tested baits.

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