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J Vet Med Sci. 2008 Jun;70(6):595-601.

Susceptibilities to antimicrobials and disinfectants in Salmonella isolates obtained from poultry and swine in Thailand.

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Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.


Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry (n=125) and swine (n=132) in Thailand were investigated for antibiotic resistance, susceptibility to disinfectants (benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), zinc chloride and copper sulfate) and cyclohexane tolerance. Forty-two percent were of multiple resistance to antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antibiotics against isolates from swine were higher than that against the isolates from poultry. There were generally few variations in MICs to all disinfectants, indicating that the isolates had either no or only a limited degree of developed resistance to the disinfectants tested. Only 5 isolates (1.9%) were tolerant to cyclohexane. The proton-dependent efflux systems did not play a major role in the reduced susceptibility to BKC and CHX, since susceptibility was not restored when an efflux inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was present. Successive exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of BKC and CHX generated mutants resistant to BKC and CHX. A spontaneous BKC-resistant derivative expressed cross-resistance to antibiotics, chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The mechanism responsible for cross-resistance between BKC and antibiotics was not driven by the proton motif force (PMF).

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