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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3703-16. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-2109. Epub 2008 Jul 15.

Incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Author information

1
National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825, USA.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are incretins secreted from enteroendocrine cells postprandially in part to regulate glucose homeostasis. Dysregulation of these hormones is evident in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two new drugs, exenatide (GLP-1 mimetic) and sitagliptin [dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 inhibitor], have been approved by regulatory agencies for treating T2DM. Liraglutide (GLP-1 mimetic) and vildagliptin (DPP 4 inhibitor) are expected to arrive on the market soon.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:

The background of incretin-based therapy and selected clinical trials of these four drugs are reviewed. A MEDLINE search was conducted for published articles using the key words incretin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GLP-1, exendin-4, exenatide, DPP 4, liraglutide, sitagliptin, and vildagliptin.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:

Exenatide and liraglutide are injection based. Three-year follow-up data on exenatide showed a sustained weight loss and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) reduction of 1%. Nausea and vomiting are common. Results from phase 3 studies are pending on liraglutide. Sitagliptin and vildagliptin are orally active. In 24-wk studies, sitagliptin reduces HbA(1c) by 0.6-0.8% as monotherapy, 1.8% as initial combination therapy with metformin, and 0.7% as add-on therapy to metformin. Vildagliptin monotherapy lowered HbA(1c) by 1.0-1.4% after 24 wk. Their major side effects are urinary tract and nasopharyngeal infections and headaches. Exenatide and liraglutide cause weight loss, whereas sitagliptin and vildagliptin do not.

CONCLUSIONS:

The availability of GLP-1 mimetics and DPP 4 inhibitors has increased our armamentarium for treating T2DM. Unresolved issues such as the effects of GLP-1 mimetics and DPP 4 inhibitors on beta-cell mass, the mechanism by which GLP-1 mimetics lowers glucagon levels, and exactly how DPP 4 inhibitors lead to a decline in plasma glucose levels without an increase in insulin secretion, need further research.

PMID:
18628530
PMCID:
PMC2579648
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2007-2109
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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