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Biophys J. 2008 Oct;95(8):3916-26. doi: 10.1529/biophysj.108.130187. Epub 2008 Jul 11.

In-depth activation of channelrhodopsin 2-sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with a near-infrared laser microbeam.

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Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.


We used two-photon excitation with a near-infrared (NIR) laser microbeam to investigate activation of channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) in excitable cells for the first time to our knowledge. By measuring the fluorescence intensity of the calcium (Ca) indicator dye, Ca orange, at different wavelengths as a function of power of the two-photon excitation microbeam, we determined the activation potential of the NIR microbeam as a function of wavelength. The two-photon activation spectrum is found to match measurements carried out with single-photon activation. However, two-photon activation is found to increase in a nonlinear manner with the power density of the two-photon laser microbeam. This approach allowed us to activate different regions of ChR2-sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution. Further, in-depth activation of ChR2 in a spheroid cellular model as well as in mouse brain slices was demonstrated by the use of the two-photon NIR microbeam, which was not possible using single-photon activation. This all-optical method of identification, activation, and detection of ChR2-induced cellular activation in genetically targeted cells with high spatial and temporal resolution will provide a new method of performing minimally invasive in-depth activation of specific target areas of tissues or organisms that have been rendered photosensitive by genetic targeting of ChR2 or similar photo-excitable molecules.

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