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J Inherit Metab Dis. 2008 Aug;31(4):473-80. doi: 10.1007/s10545-008-0878-x. Epub 2008 Jul 13.

Neurological findings in Hunter disease: pathology and possible therapeutic effects reviewed.

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Department of General Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225, Düsseldorf 20, Germany.


Hunter disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase. Accumulation of chondroitin sulfate B and heparan sulfate in various tissues is the biochemical consequence of MPS II. Children with Hunter disease are normal at birth, and symptoms occur between 2 and 10 years of age. Typical symptoms include coarse facies with enlarged tongue and prominent forehead as well as a short, stocky built stature with short neck. The cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems may be affected, and oral, dermatological and psychiatric as well as neurological complications are described. Life expectancy is markedly reduced and may be limited to 12 years for severely affected patients. The most common causes of death are airway obstruction and cardiac failure. The most severe symptoms may result from neurological symptoms or complications including hydrocephalus, spinal cord compression, cervical myelopathy, optic nerve compression, and hearing impairment. Patients may also develop carpal tunnel syndrome, sleep apnoea, seizures or mental retardation. This review describes characteristic neurological manifestations in MPS II and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, an appraisal is given whether or not enzyme replacement therapy may be able to improve in particular the neurological symptoms of Hunter disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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