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Clin J Sport Med. 2008 Jul;18(4):322-8. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31817e6f3e.

Does the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele predispose varsity athletes to concussion? A prospective cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. vicki.kristman@uhnresearch.ca

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the association between the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele and concussion. We hypothesized that apolipoprotein epsilon 4 carriers may be more likely to sustain a concussion.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

University of Toronto varsity athletics.

PARTICIPANTS:

Included 318 of 822 collegiate student athletes who participated in University of Toronto varsity sports from September 2002 to April 2006.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS:

The presence of apolipoprotein epsilon 4 was described dichotomously after genotyping blood samples collected from participants.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:

Concussions were identified by sport-medicine professionals present on the sidelines using on-field assessment forms. All concussion diagnoses were verified by a sports medicine physician. Survival analysis was used to determine the association between apolipoprotein epsilon 4 and first concussion.

RESULTS:

The unadjusted hazard ratio for concussion in the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 carriers was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.52, 2.69) compared to noncarriers. Adjustment for sex, weight, height, and team type resulted in a hazard ratio of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.41, 2.72), indicating little effect from confounding factors.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is no important association between carrying the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele and sustaining a concussion. At this time, we do not recommend preseason genetic testing for varsity athletes as a mechanism for targeting prevention strategies.

PMID:
18614883
DOI:
10.1097/JSM.0b013e31817e6f3e
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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