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Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Jun;4(6):697-720. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.6.697 .

Non-P450 aldehyde oxidizing enzymes: the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily.

Author information

1
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Molecular Toxicology & Environmental Health Sciences Program, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, C238, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules. While several non-P450 enzyme systems participate in their metabolism, one of the most important is the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily, composed of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze aldehyde oxidation.

OBJECTIVE:

This article presents a review of what is currently known about each member of the human ALDH superfamily including the pathophysiological significance of these enzymes.

METHODS:

Relevant literature involving all members of the human ALDH family was extensively reviewed, with the primary focus on recent and novel findings.

CONCLUSION:

To date, 19 ALDH genes have been identified in the human genome and mutations in these genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, type II hyperprolinemia, gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria and pyridoxine-dependent seizures. ALDH enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. Finally, ALDH enzymes display multiple catalytic and non-catalytic functions including ester hydrolysis, antioxidant properties, xenobiotic bioactivation and UV light absorption.

PMID:
18611112
PMCID:
PMC2658643
DOI:
10.1517/17425255.4.6.697
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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