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J Hand Surg Am. 1991 May;16(3):409-19.

Functional ranges of motion of the wrist joint.

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Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Mayo Clinic/Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn 55905.


We have examined 40 normal subjects (20 men and 20 women) to determine the ideal range of motion required to perform activities of daily living. The amount of wrist flexion and extension, as well as radial and ulnar deviation, was measured simultaneously by means of a biaxial wrist electrogoniometer. The entire battery of evaluated tasks could be achieved with 60 degrees of extension, 54 degrees of flexion, 40 degrees of ulnar deviation, and 17 degrees of radial deviation, which reflects the maximum wrist motion required for daily activities. The majority of the hand placement and range of motion tasks that were studied in this project could be accomplished with 70 percent of the maximal range of wrist motion. This converts to 40 degrees each of wrist flexion and extension, and 40 degrees of combined radial-ulnar deviation. This study provides normal standards for the functional range of motion of the wrist.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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