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J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008 Aug;30(6):683-90. doi: 10.1080/13803390701679893. Epub 2008 Jan 30.

Prediction of functional status in older adults: the ecological validity of four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System tests.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.


This study tested the ecological validity of four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests by examining how well performance on D-KEFS measures predicted observed daily functioning in community-dwelling older adults. Older adults ages 65 to 92 years completed four D-KEFS tests requiring planning and cognitive fluency. The four combined D-KEFS measures accounted for approximately 26% of the variance in observed functional ability, when controlling for education and depression, thus supporting the ecological validity of the D-KEFS (Pearson r = .66). However, in a multiple regression analysis, the D-KEFS Trail Making Test-4 was the only measure of executive functioning that accounted for unique, independent variance in observed functional ability.

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