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Acta Radiol. 2008 Sep;49(7):801-5. doi: 10.1080/02841850802108438.

The use of virtual reality for training in carotid artery stenting: a construct validation study.

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Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.



Given that carotid artery stenosis (CAS) intervention is procedurally difficult, possesses an extensive learning curve, and involves a grave list of potential complications, construct validation of new non-clinical training devices is of increasing importance.


To evaluate the construct validity of the Procedicus-Virtual Interventional Simulator Trainer (Procedicus-VIST) and its use as a training tool.


Sixteen interventionalists (15 males, one female; mean interventional radiology [IR] experience >11 years) and 16 medical students (15 males, one female; no IR experience) received 1 hour of didactic instruction followed by an hour of familiarization training. Subjects then attempted to complete a carotid artery stenting procedure within 1 hour while their performance metrics were recorded. All participants completed a qualitative exit survey of subjective parameters using a visual analog scale.


Procedure and fluoroscopic time was 8.7 and 8.7 min greater in the novice group (P=0.0066 and P=0.0031), respectively. There were no significant differences in performances between the two groups in the remaining metrics of cine loops (number recorded), tool/vessel ratio, coverage percentage, and placement accuracy or residual stenosis. Contrast measurement metrics were found to be too imprecise for statistical analysis. Experienced and novice opinions differed significantly for six of 10 subjective parameters. No statistically significant difference in video-gaming habits was demonstrated.


With the exception of the metrics of performance time and fluoroscopic use, construct validity of the Procedicus-VIST carotid metrics were not confirmed. Virtual reality simulation as a training method was valued more by novices than by experienced interventionalists.

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