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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Jul;162(7):649-57. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.162.7.649.

Health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

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Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, 2000 W First St, Winston-Salem, NC 27104, USA.



To examine the associations between demographic and diabetes management variables and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of youths with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).


Cross-sectional study.


Selected populations in Ohio, Washington, South Carolina, Colorado, Hawaii, and California; health service beneficiaries in 3 American Indian populations; and participants in the Pima Indian Study in Arizona.


Two thousand four hundred forty-five participants aged 8 to 22 years in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.


Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores.


Among youths with type 2 DM, HRQOL was lower compared with those with type 1. Among those with type 1 DM, worse HRQOL was associated with a primary insurance source of Medicaid or another government-funded insurance, use of insulin injections vs an insulin pump, a hemoglobin A(1c) value of at least 9%, and more comorbidities and diabetes complications. There was a significant age x sex interaction, such that, in older groups, HRQOL was lower for girls but higher for boys. For youths with type 2 DM, injecting insulin at least 3 times a day compared with using an oral or no diabetes medication was associated with better HRQOL, and having 2 or more emergency department visits in the past 6 months was associated with worse HRQOL.


Youths with types 1 and 2 DM reported HRQOL differences by type of treatment and complications. The significant age x sex interaction suggests that interventions to improve HRQOL should consider gender differences in diabetes adjustment and management in different age groups.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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