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Respir Med. 2008 Sep;102(9):1287-95. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2008.03.027. Epub 2008 Jul 7.

A prospective comparison of nursing home-acquired pneumonia with hospital-acquired pneumonia in non-intubated elderly.

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Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Edobashi 2-174, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, Japan.


There are no prospective comparison of the etiology and clinical outcome between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) in non-intubated elderly. This study prospectively evaluated the etiology of HAP and NHAP in non-intubated elderly. A prospective cohort study was carried out in a rural region of Japan where the population over 65 years of age represents 30% of the population. A total of 108 patients were enrolled. There were 33 patients with HAP and 75 with NHAP. Etiologic diagnosis was established in 78.8% of HAP and in 72% of NHAP patients. The most frequent pathogens were Chlamydophila pneumoniae followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Influenza virus. The frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza virus was significantly higher, whereas the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae was significantly lower in NHAP compared to HAP. Performance and nutritional status were significantly worse in patients with HAP than in those with NHAP. Hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients with NHAP compared to those with HAP. This study demonstrated that C. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Influenza virus are frequent causative agents of pneumonia in non-intubated elderly and that the responsible pathogens and clinical outcome differ between NHAP and HAP.

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