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Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2008 Jul;51(6):452-60. doi: 10.1016/j.annrmp.2008.05.006. Epub 2008 Jun 18.

Functional electrical stimulation of walking: function, exercise and rehabilitation.

[Article in English, French]

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Department of Health and Human Performance, Garrison Room 104, University of Houston, 3855, Holman Street, Houston, TX 77204-6015, USA.


For nearly half a century, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used to restore walking for people with paralysis and muscle weakness due to stroke and spinal cord injury. The first applications of the technology were intended to permanently replace lost neuromuscular function. Later, FES-assisted walking was found to have therapeutic benefits that include increased muscle strength, cardiovascular fitness and improved gait function that could be maintained after use of FES was terminated. In this review, we examine some of the major FES-assisted walking systems that have been developed for experimental and commercial purposes over the last four and a half decades, including foot drop stimulators, multichannel stimulators and hybrid orthotic systems.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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