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Toxicol Sci. 2008 Oct;105(2):322-30. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn128. Epub 2008 Jul 3.

Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates induction of interleukin-8 expression by deoxynivalenol, Shiga toxin 1, and ricin in monocytes.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Abstract

Translational inhibitors such as the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and ribosomal inhibitory proteins (RIPs) induce mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-driven chemokine and cytokine production by a mechanism known as the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) associates with the ribosome making it uniquely positioned to sense 28S ribosomal RNA damage and initiate the RSR. We have previously shown that PKR mediates DON-induced MAPK phosphorylation in macrophages and monocytes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that PKR is essential for induction of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in monocytes by DON and two prototypical RIPs, ricin, and Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1). Preincubation of human monocytic U937 cells with the PKR inhibitors C16 and 2-aminopurine (2-AP) blocked DON-induced expression of IL-8 protein and mRNA. Induction of IL-8 expression was similarly impaired in U937 cells stably transfected with a dominant negative PKR plasmid (UK9M) as compared with cells transfected with control plasmid (UK9C). Nuclear factor-kappa B binding, which has been previously shown to be a requisite for DON-induced IL-8 transcription, was markedly reduced in UK9M cells as compared with UK9C cells. As observed for DON, ricin-, and Stx1-induced IL-8 expression was suppressed by the PKR inhibitors C16 and 2-AP as well as impaired in UK9M cells. Taken together, these data indicate that PKR plays a common role in IL-8 induction by DON and the two RIPs, suggesting that this kinase might be a critical factor in RSR.

PMID:
18599499
PMCID:
PMC2721672
DOI:
10.1093/toxsci/kfn128
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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