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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008 Jul;55(7):1854-63. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2008.919720.

Real-time MRI-based control of a ferromagnetic core for endovascular navigation.

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  • 1Ecole Polytechnique de MontrĂ©al, MontrĂ©al, QC H3C 3A7, Canada.


This paper shows that even a simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller can be used in a clinical MRI system for real-time navigation of a ferromagnetic bead along a predefined trajectory. Although the PID controller has been validated in vivo in the artery of a living animal using a conventional clinical MRI platform, here the rectilinear navigation of a ferromagnetic bead is assessed experimentally along a two-dimensional (2D) path as well as the control of the bead in a pulsatile flow. The experimental results suggest the likelihood of controlling untethered microdevices or robots equipped with a ferromagnetic core inside complex pathways in the human body.

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