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Infect Genet Evol. 2009 Jul;9(4):699-708. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2008.04.009. Epub 2008 May 28.

Phylogeography of circulating populations of human echovirus 30 over 50 years: nucleotide polymorphism and signature of purifying selection in the VP1 capsid protein gene.

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Université d'Auvergne, Laboratoire de Virologie-EA3843, UFR Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France.


A comprehensive set of 443 1D gene sequences (encoding the VP1 capsid protein) was analyzed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary patterns among strains of human echovirus 30 (E30; genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) characterized over 50 years. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic trees of complete and nonredundant 1D gene sequences (total length=876 nucleotides) showed evidence of distinct lineages related to the isolation period of virus strains. Virus transportation was confirmed as a major epidemiological factor in the appearance of epidemics since recurrence of aseptic meningitis outbreaks in a given geographic area was associated with distinct E30 variants detected earlier in distant regions. Detection of the codon changes associated with E30 evolution was investigated with methods implemented in the Datamonkey web server. Evolution of the 1D gene was dominated by continual negative (purifying) selection against nonsynonymous substitutions at most codon sites, as determined by dN/dS ratio. Amino acid polymorphism was maintained at a limited number of sites (10/292) in the VP1 protein (within loops connecting beta strands and C-terminus). Amino acid changes are allowed at these sites because they are likely exposed on the virion particle and nonsynonymous substitutions are observed in the corresponding codons because negative selection is relaxed.

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