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Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Aug 1;16(15):7311-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.06.025. Epub 2008 Jun 18.

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of pirenzepine analogs bearing a 1,2-cyclohexanediamine and perhydroquinoxaline units in exchange for the piperazine ring as antimuscarinics.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy.


Pirenzepine (2) is one of the most selective muscarinic M(1) versus M(2) receptor antagonists known. A series of 2 analogs, in which the piperazyl moiety was replaced by a cis- and trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine (3-6) or a trans- and cis-perhydroquinoxaline rings (7 and 8) were prepared, with the aim to investigate the role of the piperazine ring of 2 in the interaction with the muscarinic receptors. The structural change leading to compounds 3-6 abolished in binding assays the muscarinic M(1)/M(2) selectivity of 2, due to an increased M(2) affinity. Rather, compounds 3-6 displayed a reversed selectivity showing more affinity at the muscarinic M(2) receptor than at all the other subtypes tested.

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