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J Environ Sci (China). 2008;20(3):372-8.

Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000, Thailand. mallika@su.ac.th

Abstract

We investigated the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water and swimming pool water in the area of the Nakhon Pathom Municipality during the period April 2005-March 2006. The concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform in tap water were 12.70-41.74, 6.72-29.19, 1.12-11.75, 0.63-3.55 and 0.08-3.40 microg/L, respectively, whereas those in swimming pool water were 26.15-65.09, 9.50-36.97, 8.90-18.01, 5.19-22.78 and ND-6.56 microg/L, respectively. It implied that the concentration of THMs in swimming pool water was higher than those in tap water, particularly, brominated-THMs. Both tap water and swimming pool water contained concentrations of total THMs below the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) phase I, but 1 out of 60 tap water samples and 60 out of 72 swimming pool water samples contained those over the Standard of the USEPA phase II. From the two cases of cancer risk assessment including Case I Non-Swimmer and Case II Swimmer, assessment of cancer risk of non-swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 4.43 x 10(-5) and 2.19 x 10(-5), respectively, which can be classified as acceptable risk according to the Standard of USEPA. Assessment of cancer risk of swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 1.47 x 10(-3) and 7.99 x 10(-4), respectively, which can be classified as unacceptable risk and needs to be improved. Risk of THMs exposure from swimming was 93.9%-94.2% of the total risk. Cancer risk of THMs concluded from various routes in descending order was: skin exposure while swimming, gastro-intestinal exposure from tap water intake, and skin exposure to tap water and gastro-intestinal exposure while swimming. Cancer risk from skin exposure while swimming was 94.18% of the total cancer risk.

PMID:
18595407
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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