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Biotechnol Bioeng. 1990 Dec 5;36(10):1006-19.

Physiological, biochemical, and mathematical studies of micro-aerobic continuous ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I: hysteresis, oscillations, and maximum specific ethanol productivities in chemostat culture.

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1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Abstract

The growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in steady-state chemostat cultures under conditions of scarce oxygen and excess glucose. The specific ethanol productivity and specific glucose uptake rate were stimulated by 50% within a narrow range of air/nitrogen mixtures to the fermentor. Fermentation was inhibited at slightly higher and lower air/nitrogen ratios, confirming similar results by previous investigators. This stimulation could not be caused by obvious mechanisms, such as the Pasteur or Crabtree effects. Since this maximum in the fermentation rate occurred in a steady-state chemostat and at a constant dilution rate, the ATP yield of the culture necessarily attained a minimum. Thus, changes in the energetic efficiency of growth or the degree of wasting of ATP were surmised. The steady-state biomass concentration at various oxygenation rates exhibited hysteresis phenomena. Ignition and extinction of the biomass concentration occurred as critical oxygen feed rates were passed. The hysteresis was prevented by adding yeast extract to or reducing the antifoam concentration in the medium. These medium alterations had the simultaneous effect of stimulating the fermentation rate, suggesting that ATP has a critical role in dictating the biomass concentration in micro-aerobic culture. Silicone polymer antifoam was found to stimulate glycerol production at the expense of ethanol production, having consequences for the energy generation and the biomass concentration of the culture.

PMID:
18595039
DOI:
10.1002/bit.260361006

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