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J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 29;283(35):24128-35. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M802996200. Epub 2008 Jul 1.

Mitochondrial Extrusion through the cytoplasmic vacuoles during cell death.

Author information

1
Departments of Immunology and Anatomy, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. anakaji@med.juntendo.ac.jp

Abstract

Under various conditions, noxious stimuli damage mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation; however, the mechanisms by which fragmented mitochondria are eliminated from the cells remain largely unknown. Here we show that cytoplasmic vacuoles originating from the plasma membrane engulfed fragmented mitochondria and subsequently extruded them into the extracellular spaces in undergoing acute tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell death in a caspase-dependent fashion. Notably, upon fusion of the membrane encapsulating mitochondria to the plasma membrane, naked mitochondria were released into the extracellular spaces in an exocytotic manner. Mitochondrial extrusion was specific to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell death, because a genotoxic stress-inducing agent such as cisplatin did not elicit mitochondrial extrusion. Moreover, intact actin and tubulin cytoskeletons were required for mitochondrial extrusion as well as membrane blebbing. Furthermore, fragmented mitochondria were engulfed by cytoplasmic vacuoles and extruded from hepatocytes of mice injected with anti-Fas antibody, suggesting that mitochondrial extrusion can be observed in vivo under pathological conditions. Mitochondria are eliminated during erythrocyte maturation under physiological conditions, and anti-mitochondrial antibody is detected in some autoimmune diseases. Thus, elucidating the mechanism underlying mitochondrial extrusion will open a novel avenue leading to better understanding of various diseases caused by mitochondrial malfunction as well as mitochondrial biology.

PMID:
18593703
PMCID:
PMC3259776
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M802996200
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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