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Urology. 2008 Sep;72(3):566-9; discussion 569-70. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2007.11.166. Epub 2008 Jun 30.

Genital and reproductive function in males after functional reconstruction of the exstrophy-epispadias complex--long-term results.

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Department of Pediatric Urology, Klinik St. Hedwig, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.



Genital and reproductive function have a strong effect on the quality of life of adolescent and adult male patients with the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC). According to the limited available data, early exstrophy reconstruction, as well as recurrent infectious or operative trauma, have been responsible for the low fertility rates.


We evaluated 21 adult male patients with EEC. Of the 21 patients, 17 had undergone single-stage reconstruction, 1 had undergone a staged approach, 2 had primarily undergone urinary diversion, and 1 had only undergone external genital reconstruction of epispadias. All were evaluated with a semistructured questionnaire, clinical examination, ultrasonography, and hormonal and semen analyses.


All patients reported erections, and 19 were sure about ejaculation. Of the 21 patients, 18 patients proved antegrade and 1 retrograde ejaculation; 2 patients were not able to retrieve their specimen. Fifteen patients had a regular testicular size, and four had unilateral and two bilateral small testes. Four had irregular intratesticular ultrasound findings. Of these 4 patients, 1 had a testicular intraepithelial neoplasia that was treated with radiotherapy. The hormonal analysis findings were normal for 17 patients and 4 had elevated follicle-stimulating hormone levels. The semen analysis showed normozoospermia in 3, asthenozoospermia in 5, oligo-asthenozoospermia in 6, and azoospermia in 5 patients. The seminal parameters included fructose 1441.8 microg/mL (normal 1200-4500), zinc 43.3 microg/mL (normal 70-250), and alpha-glucosidase 19.13 mU/mL (normal >20).


Single-stage reconstruction with consequent placement of the colliculus seminalis in the posterior urethra results in normal ejaculation in 94.1% of patients with EEC. Because of the severely impaired sperm quality and hormonal findings, patients with EEC should be offered adequate diagnostic and treatment options.

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