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Curr Opin Immunol. 2008 Aug;20(4):377-82. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2008.06.001. Epub 2008 Jul 2.

NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors.

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Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.


The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family of proteins has been demonstrated to function as regulators of innate immune response against microbial pathogens. Stimulation of NOD1 and NOD2, two prototypic NLRs, results in the activation of MAPK and NF-kappaB. On the other hand, a different set of NLRs induces caspase-1 activation through the assembly of an inflammasome. This review discusses recent findings regarding the signaling pathways utilized by NLR proteins in the control of caspase-1 and NF-kappaB activation, as well as the nonredundant role of NLRs in pathogen clearance. The review also covers advances regarding the cellular localization of these proteins and the implications this may have on pathogen sensing and signal transduction.

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