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Virology. 2008 Aug 15;378(1):151-61. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.05.020. Epub 2008 Jun 24.

Genomic characterization of novel dolphin papillomaviruses provides indications for recombination within the Papillomaviridae.

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Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.


Phylogenetic analysis of novel dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) papillomavirus sequences, TtPV1, -2, and -3, indicates that the early and late protein coding regions of their genomes differ in evolutionary history. Sliding window bootscan analysis showed a significant a change in phylogenetic clustering, in which the grouped sequences of TtPV1 and -3 move from a cluster with the Phocoena spinipinnis PsPV1 in the early region to a cluster with TtPV2 in the late region. This provides indications for a possible recombination event near the end of E2/beginning of L2. A second possible recombination site could be located near the end of L1, in the upstream regulatory region. Selection analysis by using maximum likelihood models of codon substitutions ruled out the possibility of intense selective pressure, acting asymmetrically on the viral genomes, as an alternative explanation for the observed difference in evolutionary history between the early and late genomic regions of these cetacean papillomaviruses.

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