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Neuron. 2008 Jun 26;58(6):871-83. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.04.015.

Mechanism of Ca2+ disruption in Alzheimer's disease by presenilin regulation of InsP3 receptor channel gating.

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Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Mutations in presenilins (PS) are the major cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) and have been associated with calcium (Ca2+) signaling abnormalities. Here, we demonstrate that FAD mutant PS1 (M146L)and PS2 (N141I) interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) Ca2+ release channel and exert profound stimulatory effects on its gating activity in response to saturating and suboptimal levels of InsP3. These interactions result in exaggerated cellular Ca2+ signaling in response to agonist stimulation as well as enhanced low-level Ca2+signaling in unstimulated cells. Parallel studies in InsP3R-expressing and -deficient cells revealed that enhanced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum as a result of the specific interaction of PS1-M146L with the InsP3R stimulates amyloid beta processing,an important feature of AD pathology. These observations provide molecular insights into the "Ca2+ dysregulation" hypothesis of AD pathogenesis and suggest novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

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