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Anaerobe. 2009 Feb-Apr;15(1-2):26-35. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Jun 4.

Foodborne Salmonella ecology in the avian gastrointestinal tract.

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Department of Poultry Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, 77843-2472, USA.


Foodborne Salmonella continues to be a major cause of salmonellosis with Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium considered to be responsible for most of the infections. Investigation of outbreaks and sporadic cases has indicated that food vehicles such as poultry and poultry by-products including raw and uncooked eggs are among the most common sources of Salmonella infections. The dissemination and infection of the avian intestinal tract remain somewhat unclear. In vitro incubation of Salmonella with mammalian tissue culture cells has shown that invasion into epithelial cells is complex and involves several genetic loci and host factors. Several genes are required for the intestinal phase of Salmonella invasion and are located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI 1). Salmonella pathogenesis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the effects of environmental stimuli on gene expression influence bacterial colonization and invasion. Furthermore, significant parameters of Salmonella including growth physiology, nutrient availability, pH, and energy status are considered contributing factors in the GI tract ecology. Approaches for limiting Salmonella colonization have been primarily based on the microbial ecology of the intestinal tract. In vitro studies have shown that the toxic effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) to some Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella, have resulted in a reduction in population. In addition, it has been established that native intestinal microorganisms such as Lactobacilli provide protective mechanisms against Salmonella in the ceca. A clear understanding of the key factors involved in Salmonella colonization in the avian GI tract has the potential to lead to better approach for more effective control of this foodborne pathogen.

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