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Gene. 2008 Sep 15;421(1-2):81-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2008.06.005. Epub 2008 Jun 7.

Characterization of the bovine angiotensin converting enzyme promoter: essential roles of Egr-1, ATF-2 and Ets-1 in the regulation by phorbol ester.

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Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA.


The protease angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key regulator of blood pressure homeostasis, and is responsible for proteolytic activation of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent vasoconstrictor, and proteolytic inactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Recent studies have also implicated ACE and Ang II dysregulation in the progression of fibrotic tissue diseases. Although many studies have utilized bovine tissues and cells for investigating the regulation of ACE gene expression, the bovine ACE promoter has not been previously characterized. Here we present the analysis of the bovine ACE promoter. We investigated cis elements regulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Sequence analysis shows that the bovine ACE promoter contains several putative binding sites for the transcription factors ATF-2, Ets-1, Egr-1 and SP1/SP3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) indicated that the activation of the bovine ACE promoter by PMA involves histone H4 acetylation, and that PMA induced Egr-1 and ATF-2 binding to the ACE promoter, whereas Ets-1 binding was suppressed by PMA. The regulatory roles of these transcription factors in the bovine ACE gene regulation were confirmed by co-expression of either wild type or dominant negative transcription factors with the luciferase reporter constructs. The bovine and human ACE promoters share similarities in binding sites for transcription factors and PMA regulation within the core regions but contain significant differences in the distal promoter regions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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