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J Food Sci. 2008 Jun;73(5):C335-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00752.x.

Characterization of headspace aroma compounds of freshly brewed arabica coffees and studies on a characteristic aroma compound of Ethiopian coffee.

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A sampling method to isolate headspace volatiles of freshly brewed drip coffee using a solid-phase microextraction fiber (fiber type: divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane) in a short time (2 min) immediately after extraction has been developed. Volatile compounds and potent odorants obtained from each headspace aroma of various arabica coffee extracts (3 production countries: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Guatemala; 3 roasting degrees for each country: L26, L23, and L18) using the sampling method were examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/olfactometry (GC/O, CharmAnalysis). The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the data of GC/O analysis showed that the aroma profile of Ethiopian coffee was discriminately different from those of Tanzanian coffee and Guatemalan coffee. In addition, it was suggested from the factor loading of the PCA that 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone (raspberry ketone; sweet-fruity odor) characterized the aroma profile of freshly brewed Ethiopian coffee. Therefore, the 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was quantified in the 9 kinds of coffee extracts. Ethiopian coffee extract of the lightly roasted degree (roasting degree: L26) contained the highest amount of this component, while it was only a little over the reported threshold. In the sensory test, the headspace aromas of Tanzanian and Guatemalan coffees in which 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was added were, respectively, discriminated from not added samples, and "sweet" odor was selected as an odor description that assessors found similarity between the added Tanzanian or Guatemalan coffee aroma and the Ethiopian coffee aroma. It was suggested that 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone made some detectable change on total aroma profile even though the added amount was only near threshold level.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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