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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Sep;52(9):3035-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00194-08. Epub 2008 Jun 23.

Effects of minocycline and valproic acid coadministration on atazanavir plasma concentrations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults receiving atazanavir-ritonavir.

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University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.


Minocycline and valproic acid are potential adjuvant therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether minocycline alone or in combination with valproic acid affected atazanavir plasma concentrations. Twelve adult HIV-infected subjects whose regimen included atazanavir (300 mg)-ritonavir (100 mg) daily for at least 4 weeks were enrolled. Each subject received atazanavir-ritonavir on day 1, atazanavir-ritonavir plus 100 mg minocycline twice daily on days 2 to 15, and atazanavir-ritonavir plus 100 mg minocycline twice daily and 250 mg valproic acid twice daily on days 16 to 30 with meals. The subjects had 11 plasma samples drawn over a dosing interval on days 1, 15, and 30. The coadministration of minocycline and valproic acid with atazanavir-ritonavir was well tolerated in all 12 subjects (six male; mean [+/- standard deviation] age was 43.1 [8.2] years). The geometric mean ratios (GMRs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for the atazanavir area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h at steady state (AUC(0-24)), the plasma concentration 24 h after the dose (C(min)), and the maximum concentration during the dosing interval (C(max)) with and without minocycline were 0.67 (0.50 to 0.90), 0.50 (0.28 to 0.89), and 0.75 (0.58 to 0.95), respectively. Similar decreases in atazanavir exposure were seen after the addition of valproic acid. The GMRs (95% CI) for atazanavir AUC(0-24), C(min), and C(max) with and without minocycline plus valproic acid were 0.68 (0.43 to 1.06), 0.50 (0.24 to 1.06), and 0.66 (0.41 to 1.06), respectively. Coadministration of neither minocycline nor minocycline plus valproic acid appeared to influence the plasma concentrations of ritonavir (P > 0.2). Minocycline coadministration resulted in decreased atazanavir exposure, and there was no evidence that the addition of valproic acid mediated this effect.

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