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Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2008 Oct;20(5):583-8. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2008 Jun 21.

Extracellular matrix regulation of autophagy.

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Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, HSW 514, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


Integrin-mediated attachment of epithelial cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for proper growth and survival. Although detachment leads to apoptosis, termed anoikis, recent work demonstrates that ECM detachment also robustly induces autophagy, a tightly regulated lysosomal self-digestion process that actually promotes survival. Autophagy presumably protects epithelial cells from the stresses of ECM detachment, allowing them to survive provided that they reattach in a timely manner. Currently, the intracellular signals linking integrin engagement to autophagy remain unclear, but certain growth factor, energy-sensing, and stress-response pathways represent attractive candidates. Moreover, autophagy may be a previously unrecognized mechanism utilized by detached cancer cells to survive anoikis, which may facilitate tumor cell dormancy, dissemination, and metastasis.

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