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Waste Manag. 2009 Jan;29(1):277-84. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.04.006. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals in APC residue from an MSW incinerator using various extraction methods.

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Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng-Chia University, 100 Wen-Hwa Road, Tai-Chung 407, Taiwan, ROC.


This study investigates four extraction methods (water extraction, toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), modified TCLP with pH control, and sequential chemical extraction (SCE)), each representing different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios, pH controls, and types of leachant, and their effects on the leaching concentration of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator air pollution control (APC) residue. The results indicated that for extraction with distilled water, the heavy metal leaching concentration (mg/l) decreased with L/S ratio, but the amount of heavy metal released (AHMR), defined as the leached amount of heavy metals to the weight of the tested sample (mg/kg), increased with an increase in L/S ratio, in the range of 2-100. The results also showed that both the leaching concentration and the amount of released metals were strongly pH-dependent in the TCLP and modified TCLP tests. In the case of pHs lower than 6.5, the leaching concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr decreased with an increase in pH. As pH increased higher than 6.5, Cr and Zn were almost insoluble. Meanwhile, Cd and Cu also showed a similar trend but at pHs of 8.5 and 7.5, respectively. Due to the nature of amphoteric elements, in the case of pHs higher than 7, the Pb leaching concentration increased with increasing pH. In modified TCLP tests with the pH value controlled at the same level as in the SCE test, the heavy metal speciation approached the extractable carbonate bound fraction by the SCE. Both amounts of targeted metals leached from the SCE and modified TCLP tests were much higher than those for the regular TCLP and water extraction tests.

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