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Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2008 Jun;34(6):618-26. doi: 10.1080/03639040701833740 .

Transdermal delivery of valsartan: I. Effect of various terpenes.

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Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India.


The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of various terpenes, including a diterpene, forskolin (FSK; a putative penetration enhancer), on skin permeation of valsartan. Permeation studies were carried out with Automated Transdermal Diffusion Cells Sampling System (SFDC 6, LOGAN Instruments Corp., NJ, USA) through rat skin and human cadaver skin (HCS) using ethanol: IPB (pH 7.4) (40:60) as vehicle. The efficacy of the study terpenes for permeation of valsartan across rat skin and human cadaver skin was found in the order of cineole > d-limonene > l-menthol > linalool > FSK and cineole > d-limonene > linalool > l-menthol > FSK, respectively. No apparent skin irritation (erythema, edema) was observed on treatment of skin with terpenes including FSK. FT-IR, DSC, and histopathological studies revealed that FSK enhanced the skin permeation of the active drug by disruption and extraction of lipid bilayers of SC in consonance with other terpenes.

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