Send to

Choose Destination
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2008 Aug;11(4):351-66. doi: 10.1080/10255840802020412.

Soft tissue modelling for applications in virtual surgery and surgical robotics.

Author information

Division of Biomechanics and Engineering Design, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.


Soft tissue modelling has gained a great deal of importance, for a large part due to its application in surgical training simulators for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). This article provides a structured overview of different continuum-mechanical models that have been developed over the years. It aims at facilitating model choice for specific soft tissue modelling applications. According to the complexity of the model, different features of soft biological tissue will be incorporated, i.e. nonlinearity, viscoelasticity, anisotropy, heterogeneity and finally, tissue damage during deformation. A brief summary of experimental methods for material characterisation and an introduction to methods for geometric modelling are also provided. The overview is non-exhaustive, focusing on the most important general models and models with specific biological applications. A trade-off in complexity must be made for enabling real-time simulation, but still maintaining realistic representation of the organ deformation. Depending on the organ and tissue types, different models with emphasis on certain features will prove to be more appropriate, meaning the optimal model choice is organ and tissue-dependent.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center