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J Gen Virol. 2008 Jul;89(Pt 7):1593-604. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.83521-0.

Hepatitis A virus protein 2B suppresses beta interferon (IFN) gene transcription by interfering with IFN regulatory factor 3 activation.

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Department of Virology, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse/UFT, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.


Hepatitis A virus (HAV) antagonizes the innate immune response by inhibition of retinoic acid-inducible gene I-mediated and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5-mediated beta interferon (IFN-beta) gene expression. This study showed that this is due to an interaction of HAV with mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS)-dependent signalling, in which the viral non-structural protein 2B and the protein intermediate 3ABC recently suggested in this context seem to be involved, cooperatively affecting the activities of MAVS and the kinases TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and the inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase epsilon (IKKepsilon). In consequence, interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) is not activated. As IRF-3 is necessary for IFN-beta transcription, inhibition of this factor results in efficient suppression of IFN-beta synthesis. This ability might be of vital importance for HAV, which is an exceptionally slow growing virus sensitive to IFN-beta, as it allows the virus to establish infection and maintain virus replication for a longer period of time.

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