Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Feb;19(2):123-8. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2008.02.011. Epub 2008 Jun 16.

Salt and the metabolic syndrome.

Author information

Center for the Detection and Treatment of Silent Risk Factors for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, School of Pharmacy, Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.



High blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS) is largely related to dietary salt. We investigated in free-living men and women whether increase in dietary salt intake is associated with the presence and severity of the MS.


A total of 766 subjects (251M, 515F) of 44.9+/-0.5 years/age and SBP/DBP of 120+/-0.6/77+/-0.4 mmHg were studied. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium (UNa(+)) and potassium (UK(+)) excretions were 143+/-2.5 mmol (median: 131.5) and 48+/-0.9 mmol (median: 44). UNa(+) was higher in men than in women (median: 155.5 vs. 119.8 mmol/day; P<0.0001). UK(+) (r=0.34; P<0.0001), measures of obesity (r=0.26; P<0.0001) and BP (r=0.15; P<0.0001) were significantly associated with UNa(+). The association with BP was lost after adjusting for weight. Of the 766 subjects, 256 (33.4%) met the NCEP-ATPIII criteria for the MS. Median UNa(+) in men and women with no traits of the MS was 140 and 116.7 mmol/day, respectively (P<0.001), increasing to 176 in men and 135 mmol/day in women with 4-5 components of the syndrome (P<0.001). Weight, BMI and waist increased significantly across the quartiles of UNa(+) both in men and women; whereas, age, lipids and fasting glucose did not. SBP and DBP were associated with UNa(+) in men but not in women. UK(+) correlated with age in men and women (r=023; P<0.0001) and with obesity in women (r=0.14; P=0.001).


UNa(+) a measure of dietary sodium intake in free-living subjects was markedly increased in subjects with the MS. Higher UNa(+) was associated with obesity and higher BP, but not with age, dyslipidemia or fasting glucose.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center