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Emerg Med Australas. 2008 Jun;20(3):267-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2008.01093.x.

Effectiveness of pressure-immobilization first aid for snakebite requires further study.

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Tropical Toxinology Program, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Northern Territory, Australia.


In the prospective Royal Darwin Hospital snakebite study, pressure-immobilization first aid (PI) was used more often than in previous studies. However, bandages were not uncommonly too loose or not applied to the whole limb and immobilization was often neglected. While PI should continue to be promoted as the standard for Australia for the present, prospective multicentre studies of snakebite with quantitative assays for blood venom concentration will hopefully better elucidate the real effectiveness of PI and define the limitations of timing of application and determine the optimum types of bandage materials to use and the pressure required to be maintained.

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