Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008 Mar-Apr;23(2):327-34.

Supra- and subgingival biofilm formation on implant abutments with different surface characteristics.

Author information

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomedical Materials Science, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.



The aim of the present study was to establish a noninvasive method for quantitative analysis of supra- and subgingival biofilm formation on dental implants considering different surface modifications.


Patients of both sexes were included. They had to be in generally good health, partially edentulous, and the recipient of at least 1 screw-type implant with an abutment possessing supra- and subgingival areas. Healing abutments were inserted for 14 days. The abutment surfaces were divided into quadrants that were sandblasted, ground, acid-etched, and untreated (with the latter surface as a control). Biofilm formation on the healing abutments was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, including secondary-electron and Rutherford backscattering-detection methods. Calculation of biofilm-covered surfaces was performed depending on grey-values, considering supra- and subgingival areas. After calculating absolute and relative biofilm-covered surfaces depending on localization, the influence of surface modification on biofilm formation was analyzed.


Fifteen healing abutments were inserted in 11 patients. In all surface properties plaque adhesion in supragingival areas was significantly higher (17.3% +/- 23.1%) than in subgingival areas (0.8% +/- 1.0%). Biofilm accumulation in supragingival areas was significantly increasing by higher surface roughness, whereas this influence was not detected in subgingival areas.


The described method is valuable for investigation of supra- and subgingival biofilm adhesion on surface-modified implant abutments. There was a significant influence of surface localization (supra- and subgingival) as well as surface modification on biofilm formation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center