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Environ Sci Technol. 2008 May 15;42(10):3538-42.

Perfluorinated surfactants in surface, subsurface water and microlayer from Dalian Coastal waters in China.

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School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, 116023 Liaoning, China.


Two predominant perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in surface water (SW, 0-20 cm), subsurface water (SSW, > 30 cm depth), and sea surface microlayer (SML, 50 microm thickness) were measured from Dalian Coastal waters in China. The SML samples were collected using glass-plate dipping method. Analysis of the PFCs was conducted through solid-phase extraction, followed by LC/MS-SIM. The PFC's concentrations in SW samples were consistent with previously reported data in this region. Significantly higher concentrations of PFCs were found in SML samples than corresponding SSW samples. The enrichment factors (EF = C(SML)/C(SSW)) for PFOS were as high as 24-109 atthree near-shore sites. The concentration in SW was also generally higher than corresponding SSW samples, giving C(SW)/C(SSW) mean ratios of 1.5 and 1.4 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. This apparent enrichment of PFCs in surface water, especially in the microlayer, has implications for designing measurement techniques, understanding their distributions, and sea spray-mediated transport in the environment.

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