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Opt Express. 2008 Jun 9;16(12):8769-79.

Optical microring resonators in fluorineimplanted lithium niobate.

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Nonlinear Optics Laboratory, Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.


We report on the production and characterisation of optical microring resonators and optical channel waveguides by using fluorine-ion implantation and planar structuring in lithium niobate. We demonstrate the production of single-mode planar waveguides by low fluence fluorine-ion implantation (?? = 2.5 x10(14) ions/cm(2)) into lithium niobate wafers. The waveguides are strongly confined by the amorphous 2-microm wide optical barrier induced by the implantation process. A refractive index contrast of Deltan(o) = 0.17 at the telecom wavelength lambda = 1.5 microm has been determined between the waveguide and the barrier. Planar structuring with ridge height of up to 1.2 microm has been achieved by laser lithography masking and Ar(+) sputtering. For TE waves, the channel waveguides exhibit propagation losses lower than 8 dB/cm. First ring resonators with 80-microm radius have been fabricated by planar structuring in fluorine-ion implanted lithium niobate. The measured resonance curves show an extinction ratio of 14 dB, a free spectral range of 2.0 nm and a finesse of 4.

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