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Appl Opt. 2008 Jun 10;47(17):3177-84.

Two-beam-current method for e-beam writing gray-scale masks and its application to high-resolution microstructures.

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1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0407, USA.


A two-beam-current method is introduced for e-beam writing in the fabrication of gray-scale masks. Compared with the simpler single-current method, the two-beam-current method offers two important advantages: (a) it can achieve a much larger dynamic range for e-beam exposure; (b) the writing time for a gray-scale mask can be reduced when a large pattern is to be written. Here, the new method is first described in detail and its application to the fabrication of our new gray-scale mask is demonstrated. Then, the improved gray-scale masks were employed to fabricate large dynamic range, high-resolution micro-optical elements of less than a couple of micrometers depth, using deep ultraviolet lithography at 248 nm wavelength and an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching system.

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