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J Occup Environ Med. 2008 Jun;50(6):658-66. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330.

Working overtime is associated with anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study.

Author information

1
Medical Faculty, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. elisabeth.kleppa@student.uib.no

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine whether long work hours are associated with increased levels and prevalences of anxiety and depression.

METHODS:

Overtime workers (n = 1350) were compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle, and somatic health was included.

RESULTS:

Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels and higher prevalences of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Working overtime is associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression. The working groups differed significantly regarding several factors including income and heavy manual labor.

PMID:
18545093
DOI:
10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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