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Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2008;267:207-52. doi: 10.1016/S1937-6448(08)00605-9.

Effects of environmental estrogens and antiandrogens on endocrine function, gene regulation, and health in fish.

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  • 1Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.


A number of studies have indicated widespread reproductive endocrine disruption in wild fish populations. A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the sources and to elucidate potential mechanisms of the disruption. This review explores the varied mechanisms of estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects in fish including effects at the steroid receptor level, effects on steroid synthesis, distribution, and excretion, actions up the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, as well as indirect mechanisms including thyroid and growth hormone disruption. Consequences of reproductive endocrine disruption will be touched on including non-reproductive responses such as impaired gene regulation, effects of unscheduled protein synthesis and DNA damage, and reproductive responses such as intersex, sex reversal and reproductive failure.

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