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Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 9;168(11):1159-64. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.11.1159.

Characterization of resistant hypertension: association between resistant hypertension, aldosterone, and persistent intravascular volume expansion.

Author information

1
Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 933 19th St S, Community Health Services Bldg 115, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. drgaddam@uab.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem and greatly increases the risk of target organ damage.

METHODS:

We evaluated the characteristics of 279 consecutive patients with resistant hypertension (uncontrolled despite the use of 3 antihypertensive agents) and 53 control subjects (with normotension or hypertension controlled by using <or=2 antihypertensive medications). Participants were prospectively examined for plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone to renin ratio, brain-type natriuretic peptide, atrial natriuretic peptide, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone (UAldo), cortisol, sodium, and potassium values while adhering to a routine diet.

RESULTS:

Plasma aldosterone (P < .001), aldosterone to renin ratio (P < .001), 24-hour UAldo (P = .02), brain-type natriuretic peptide (P = .007), and atrial natriuretic peptide (P = .001) values were higher and plasma renin activity (P = .02) and serum potassium (P < .001) values were lower in patients with resistant hypertension vs controls. Of patients with resistant hypertension, men had significantly higher plasma aldosterone (P = .003), aldosterone to renin ratio (P = .02), 24-hour UAldo (P < .001), and urinary cortisol (P < .001) values than women. In univariate linear regression analysis, body mass index (P = .01), serum potassium (P < .001), urinary cortisol (P < .001), urinary sodium (P = .02), and urinary potassium (P < .001) values were correlated with 24-hour UAldo levels. Serum potassium (P = .001), urinary potassium (P < .001), and urinary sodium (P = .03) levels were predictors of 24-hour UAldo levels in multivariate modeling.

CONCLUSIONS:

Aldosterone levels are higher and there is evidence of intravascular volume expansion (higher brain-type and atrial natriuretic peptide levels) in patients with resistant hypertension vs controls. These differences are most pronounced in men. A significant correlation between 24-hour urinary aldosterone levels and cortisol excretion suggests that a common stimulus, such as corticotropin, may underlie the aldosterone excess in patients with resistant hypertension.

PMID:
18541823
PMCID:
PMC2748247
DOI:
10.1001/archinte.168.11.1159
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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