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Annu Rev Microbiol. 2008;62:193-210. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.62.081307.163002.

Bistability, epigenetics, and bet-hedging in bacteria.

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1
Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, United Kingdom. j.w.veening@ncl.ac.uk

Abstract

Clonal populations of microbial cells often show a high degree of phenotypic variability under homogeneous conditions. Stochastic fluctuations in the cellular components that determine cellular states can cause two distinct subpopulations, a property called bistability. Phenotypic heterogeneity can be readily obtained by interlinking multiple gene regulatory pathways, effectively resulting in a genetic logic-AND gate. Although switching between states can occur within the cells' lifetime, cells can also pass their cellular state over to the next generation by a mechanism known as epigenetic inheritance and thus perpetuate the phenotypic state. Importantly, heterogeneous populations can demonstrate increased fitness compared with homogeneous populations. This suggests that microbial cells employ bet-hedging strategies to maximize survival. Here, we discuss the possible roles of interlinked bistable networks, epigenetic inheritance, and bet-hedging in bacteria.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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