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Behav Brain Res. 2008 Nov 3;193(1):48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.04.019. Epub 2008 May 1.

Impulsive choice and environmental enrichment: effects of d-amphetamine and methylphenidate.

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1
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, S-3 Laboratories, 860, 914 South 8th Street, Minneapolis, MN 55404, United States. perry050@umn.edu

Abstract

Individual differences in impulsive choice and rearing in differential environments are factors that predict vulnerability to drug abuse. The present study determined if rearing influences impulsive choice, and if d-amphetamine or methylphenidate alters impulsive choice in differentially reared rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised from 21 days of age in either an enriched condition (EC) or an isolated condition (IC) and were tested as young adults on an adjusting delay task. In this task, two levers were available and a response on one lever yielded one 45mg food pellet immediately, whereas a response on the other yielded three pellets after an adjusting delay. The delay was initially set at 6s, and it decreased or increased by 1s following responses on the immediate or delayed levers, respectively. A mean adjusted delay (MAD) was calculated upon completion of each daily session, and it served as the quantitative measure of impulsivity. Once MADs stabilized, rats were injected with saline, d-amphetamine (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0mg/kg, s.c.), or methylphenidate (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0mg/kg, s.c.) 15min prior to adjusting delay sessions. EC rats had higher baseline MADs (were less impulsive) than IC rats. Additionally, administration of d-amphetamine, but not methylphenidate, dose-dependently increased impulsive choice (decreased MADs) in EC rats. In IC rats, d-amphetamine and methylphenidate dose-dependently decreased impulsivity (increased MADs). These results indicate that rearing environment influences impulsive choice and moderates the effect of psychostimulants on impulsive choice. Specifically, psychostimulants may decrease environment-dependent impulsive choice in individuals with high levels of impulsivity (e.g., those with ADHD), whereas they may increase impulsive choice in individuals with low levels of impulsivity.

PMID:
18534693
PMCID:
PMC2681296
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbr.2008.04.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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