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J Pediatr. 2008 Sep;153(3):414-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.04.030. Epub 2008 Jun 5.

Cigarette smoking associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

1
Pediatric Psychopharmacology Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and severity of physical dependence on nicotine in a controlled study of adolescents and young adults with ADHD.

STUDY DESIGN:

In controlled longitudinal family studies of ADHD, we examined self-reports on the modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ) for degrees of physical dependence on nicotine.

RESULTS:

We obtained mFTQ data from 80 ADHD probands and 86 control probands (mean age, 19.2 years). The smokers with ADHD had significantly higher scores on the mFTQ, indicative of more severe physical dependence on nicotine. Similarly, in current smokers, a positive linear relationship was found between mFTQ score and both inattentive and hyperactive ADHD symptoms. Environmental factors, such as current parental smoking, peer smoking, and living with a smoker, all increased the risk for smoking in those with ADHD compared with controls.

CONCLUSION:

Male and female smokers with ADHD manifest more severe physical dependence on smoking compared with controls. Important environmental factors appear to add to the risk of smoking associated with ADHD.

PMID:
18534619
PMCID:
PMC2559464
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.04.030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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